University SVG (from him. Universität, which in turn originates from the Latin universitas (a group, a community) is a higher education institution where specialists in basic and many applied sciences are trained. As a rule, it also carries out research and development work. Many modern universities act as teaching and research facilities. Universities bring together a number of faculties, which represent a variety of disciplines that form the basis of scientific knowledge.
University SVG History
In 859 in Fez, Morocco, was founded the University of Al Karahouin. In the same IX century appeared the University of Salerno, which existed until 1861, as well as literary schools in Veliki-Preslav and Ohrid, founded by the Bulgarian Tsar Boris I (in the baptism of Michael).
The emergence of universities in the Middle Ages is connected with the development of cities. The earliest, in the 11th century, they originated in Italy. The University of Bologna, originally a school of Roman law, was opened there. At the end of the 12th century, the University of Paris grew out of several monastic schools.
In 1117, the University of Oxford already taught students, and according to history, after a clash of professors and students with the inhabitants of Oxford in 1209, some scientists fled north, where they founded the University of Cambridge. In addition to Cambridge, a number of universities were opened in the 13th century in Salamanca, Montpellier, Padua, Naples and Toulouse. In the 14th century, universities appeared in Florence (studium generale, 1321), Prague (1348), Krakow (1364), Vienna (1365), Heidelberg (1385), Leipzig (1409), Basel (1459), etc.
Some authors believe that the spread of universities in medieval Europe was associated with the Reconquista in Spain, which resulted in Arab universities in the lands of Christian states, as well as the conquest of Arab Sicily by Europeans and the Crusader campaigns to the east, where they were familiar with both Arabic and Byzantine culture. Early universities in Western Europe enjoyed the patronage of the Catholic Church and had the status of schools in cathedrals (such as the University of Paris) or Studium Generale (general schools). Later, universities established kings (Prague and Krakow universities) and municipal administrations (universities in Cologne and Erfurt).
University SVG education was divided into two stages. At the first of them (3-4 years) the training consisted in mastering seven “free arts”. To begin with, the studio was offered to learn to write and speak – he had to master the trivium (from Latin trivium – trio, trio) of grammar, rhetoric and logic. This was already enough to get a good place in the city administration or to serve as a secretary-governor of a feudal estate. After the end of the trivium, the student could start studying the quadrium (quadrium – quadrium, quadruple four). It included such disciplines as arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy. It is important to remember that there was no single training program typical of modern universities at that time. Studiosus could study any subject for any amount of time. It often took many years for students to move from one university to another (due to the common language of instruction – Latin – there were virtually no borders for them) in search of rare books or the best professors; they interrupted their studies by finding a job in order to save money for a new course, etc.
After mastering seven “free arts” (and in some cases only one trivium), the student could move on to the second stage of study. It was held in one of the higher faculties, which, as a rule, specialized in one of the three disciplines: theology, medicine or law.
The first higher education institution in Eastern Europe was the Ostrog Academy, which was founded in 1576. In China, the Hanlin Academy is considered to be a similar institution to the university, opened in the VIII century. By the XVIII century, universities published their own scientific journals. Two main models of the University SVG were developed: German and French. The German model is based on the ideas of Wilhelm Humboldt and Friedrich Schlejermacher; the university supports academic freedom, laboratories and seminars.
French universities are dominated by strict order and the administration directs all aspects of their activities. Until the 19th century, religion was the most important part of education in European universities, but during the 19th century its role gradually diminished. Universities focused on scientific research, and the German model, which was better adapted to science, eventually became more widespread around the world than the French model. At the same time, higher education was becoming increasingly accessible to the general public. Universities have appeared in China.