Puppy SVG is a domestic animal, one of the most common (along with a cat) companion animals.
Initially, the domestic dog was separated into a separate biological species (Latin Canis familiaris) by Linnaeus in 1758, in 1993 it was reclassified by the Smithsonian Institute and the American Association of Teriologists into a wolf species (Canis lupus).
From the zoological point of view, the dog is a placental mammal of a detachment of predatory dog families.
Dogs are known for their learning abilities, their love of play, and their social behaviour. Special breeds of dogs for various purposes are bred: hunting, security, traction of animal transport and other, as well as decorative breeds (e.g., bladder, poodle).
If it is necessary to differentiate by sex, the terms “male” and “female” are used.
Baby dogs are called puppies.
Puppy SVG Origin and history of domestication
There are several hypotheses of the dog’s origin, the most likely ancestors are the wolf and some types of jackals.
There are two points of view in scientists’ judgements about the ancestors of a domestic dog. Some believe that dogs are a polyphiletic group (originating from several ancestors), while others believe that all dogs came from the same ancestor (monophyletic theory).
Etologist Konrad Lorenz, a Nobel Prize winner, once put forward a theory about the origin of dogs from wolves and jackals, emphasizing the diameter differences between their characters and habits.
The origin of the dog from the wolf is indicated by complex results of comparative analysis of chromosomes, behavior, morphology, vocalization and the results of molecular genetic analysis.
Puppy SVG Early domestication period
The dog is the oldest of all pets. Scientists agree that the dog was domesticated in the Old World in the Upper Paleolithic period; however, there is still no consensus on the exact location, the time period and the reasons for domesticating the dog in the scientific environment. Rock images, drawings and findings of archaeologists allow scientists to make some conclusions and assumptions. In the Volga-Oka interfluves the dog is represented throughout the Mesolithic period and, according to archaeologists, was the only pet. Mesolithic dogs had large sizes and powerful jaws. Judging by the traces of bone cutting, the local population was eating dogs. Hides and bones were used (for making needles). The main role of the dog of this period – the assistant on the hunting.
Puppy SVG Domestication scenarios
There are different scenarios for domestication of the wolf. In one of them, the initiative of domestication of the wolf belonged to man, in the other – the wolf himself began to develop a new ecological niche near the camps of the primitive man, that is, there was his “self-domestication”. Probably, its pioneers could be very rare, unique in behavior, most tolerant to humans. The first group of such animals could be strongly induced and exposed to genetic drift processes. This initial population, multiplied among them, could, as some scientists suppose, give the world all the variety of dogs. This assumption was made on the basis of mtDNA studies, which revealed a small number of mitochondrial pedigrees, which could indicate a limited number of founders of domesticating events.
But at the same time, no correlation was found between mt-haplotypes and belonging to the breed. This may be an indication that rock differentiation has started and occurred in genetically diverse populations of primitive breeds, which have been widespread around the world. Studies at the nuclear DNA level have revealed a great genetic diversity in dogs. These data also suggest that the genetic pool of modern dogs came from a diverse gene pool, which, in turn, may indicate multiple independent events of domestication of the wolf in different places and at different times. Despite the fact that modern data suggest the emergence of dogs in Southeast Asia about 12-15 thousand years ago, in Western Russia at the same time have already been diverted from the wolf dogs.
So far it is impossible to say for sure whether the domestication of the wolf by a man has caused a divergence of the dog with its ancestor, or whether this divergence was the result of the evolutionary path of the dog, preceding the domestication by man. The second point of view has its supporters. They were biologists Raymond and Lorne Coppinger. In other words, according to this theory, a man did not domesticate a wolf on his own initiative; the first step was taken by wolves, who for some reason were rejected by the main pack and moved closer to the human dwelling, where they could feed on the garbage. It was necessary for these individuals not only not only not to attack the person, but also to gain his trust and sympathy. I mean, the dog kind of tamed herself.
Mathieu Germontre suggests that our hunting ancestors might have tamed the puppies of the murdered she-wolf. Canadian biologist Susan Crawford from Victoria University believes that domestication took place independently.
There are finds of fossilized bones of wolf 100 thousand years BC, which were found in places of economic activity of man.
The use of domesticated dogs
It is usually believed that the dog originally served as a watchdog, but very soon began to be used in hunting as well.
Anthropologists believe that the hunting qualities of dogs have become the main factor of their domestication. Ancient people in the struggle for survival were looking for the most perfect methods of food extraction.
The hypothesis of using dogs to increase the efficiency of hunting by an ancient man was experimentally confirmed in 2004 by Finnish scientists.
Sociocultural aspects of domestication
The cultural process of domestication of dogs began when animals began to integrate into the social structure of human society.
As soon as people settled down and started farming, they started to breed their dogs for various purposes: to herd herds, protect homes and various types of hunting. DNA studies have shown that changing a dog’s diet, including starch (in agricultural products), was an important step in domestication and led to changes in key starch metabolism genes.
In human settlements, the dog – apart from its security function (barking at the approach of strangers) – also played a sanitary role, absorbing the remains of human food, and served as a source of heat on cold nights. Thus, for early human groups, living with dogs increased the chances of survival.
Anthropologist Paul Tacon and bio-archaeologist Colin Pardo, who study the common past of man and dog, believe that the close cooperation of early groups of people with animals has influenced the psychology of people, their territorial behavior: people began to celebrate their territory and adopted group hunting methods.