Mushrooms SVG are a kingdom of wildlife, combining eukaryotic organisms that combine some of the characteristics of both plants and animals. Mushrooms study the science of mycology, which is considered to be a part of botany, as previously mushrooms were attributed to the realm of plants.
The concept of mushrooms as a separate kingdom was formed in science by the 1970s, although it was suggested by E. Fris in 1831, and Carl Linnaeus expressed doubts by placing mushrooms in the kingdom of plants in his “System of Nature”. In the second half of the 20th century, the idea of mushroom polyphilism was finally formed. By the end of the XX century, data on genetics, cytology and biochemistry had been accumulated, which made it possible to divide this group of organisms into several unrelated branches and distribute them among different kingdoms, leaving in the realm of “real”, or actually mushrooms, only one of them. Thus, by the beginning of the XXI century the scientific term “mushrooms” became ambiguous.
In a narrow sense, from the point of view of biological systematics, Mushrooms SVG are taxons, one of the realms of wildlife. In the old, broader sense, the term has lost the meaning of the taxon and denotes the ecological-trophic group that unites heterotrophic eukaryotes with a heterotrophic type of food. Such organisms traditionally continue to study mycology.
The biological and ecological diversity of fungi is very high. This is one of the largest and most diverse groups of living organisms, which has become an integral part of all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. According to modern estimates, there are between 100,000 and 250,000 species of fungi on Earth, and according to some estimates up to 1.5 million. As of 2008, 36 classes, 140 orders of magnitude, 560 families, 8283 used generic names and 5101 generic synonyms, 97 861 species, were described in the Fungi Kingdom.
The role of fungi in nature and in the human economy cannot be overestimated. Mushrooms SVG are present in all ecological niches – in water and on land, in soil and on various other substrates. As decomposers, they play an important role in the ecology of the entire biosphere, decomposing all kinds of organic materials and contributing to the formation of fertile soils. The role of fungi as participants in mutually beneficial symbiotic (mutatistic) communities is great. Symbiotic relations of fungi with higher plants – mycorrhiza, with algae and cyanobacteria – lichens, with insects, representatives of the order of neocallimastigas – an essential component of the digestive system of ruminants and some other herbivorous mammals, they play an important role in the digestion of plant foods.
Many species of mushrooms are actively used by humans for food, household and medical purposes. Dishes from edible mushrooms are traditionally included in the national cuisine of many peoples of the world. Many countries have developed industrial cultivation of edible mushrooms, production of materials for amateur mushroom growers. Microscopic mushrooms are used in the food industry for the preparation of drinks by fermentation and fermentation of various food products. Mushrooms are one of the most important objects of biotechnology used for the production of antibiotics and other drugs, some chemicals used in the food industry and for technical purposes.
On the other hand, fungi can also cause significant harm. Phytopathogenic fungi in undisturbed natural ecosystems are usually harmless and can cause epiphytosis in agricultural plantations (agrocenoses), tree plantations and in forests where economic activities are carried out. In animals and humans, fungi cause skin diseases (dermatomycosis) and sometimes internal organ damage (deep mycosis). They are very dangerous and can lead to a fatal outcome of poisoning with toxic fungi, as well as mycotoxicosis – poisoning with foodstuffs contaminated with microscopic fungal toxins. Significant damage is caused by the spoilage of various products and materials caused by fungi (biocorrosion). There are also hallucinogenic fungi.