A dwelling is a traditional building or a natural shelter adapted for human habitation. In addition to its practical function, the dwelling plays a symbolic role – it embodies the idea of a structured human cultural space, protected from external chaos, carries out communication with previous generations of the family or family. In this sense, housing is not only a dwelling but also a house in the broadest sense of the word, including a settlement, a country, an ecumenical entity as a whole
Accommodation is understood as apartment houses of permanent residence, dormitories for living during work or study, hotels for short-term stay. Apartment buildings include hotel-type houses and nursing Home SVG.
The appearance, wall material and internal structure of the Home SVG are very diverse (material can be wood, tarpaulin, stone, concrete, earth, brick, steel, and even glass, bone or snow).
Home SVG History
People have been using the dwelling since the primitive system. Initially they were various caves, grottoes, etc. Since the natural dwellings could not satisfy all the needs of ancient people, they began to be developed. They used stone paving (for example, the ancient site of La Ferrasi, the cave of El Castillo), stone fencing (Ilskaya parking lot in the Krasnodar region), simple piles of stones, which also served as fencing (the Wolf’s cave in the Crimea). The oldest dwellings of people living on the plains were dugouts and huts.
Climate change and cooling forced people to build more and more houses. In the absence of special tools, trees and animal bones served as the working material. One of the oldest dwellings built in the world dates back to the 10th millennium BC and was made of mammoth bones; the find was made in the USSR in the village of Mezhirich, near Kiev, today’s Ukraine. Probably, the dwelling has been covered by skins of a mammoth. The dwelling was discovered in 1965 by a peasant digging a cellar at a depth of 2 m.
The Home SVG in the modern sense began to be built, apparently, since the Neolithic period, but in different places and in different cultures the housing construction began at different times. Thus, the earliest known Neolithic dwellings of Ancient Egypt belong to the X millennium BC, and in Greece, found buildings created about 6000 years BC. Housing in the northern regions, with their harsh winters, the dwelling is one round or square room with a place for the hearth in the middle and a hole for the exit of smoke at the top. Sometimes people used to sleep in such a dwelling together with their pets. In the Bulgarian town of Stara Zagora there is a museum called Neolithic Dwellings (Bologna) in Russian, where various household utensils of that time are presented: the first ovens for baking bread, handmills, ceramic vessels and others.
After the transition from a nomadic to a sedentary way of life, the dwelling gradually changes. The appearance, size and location of the dwellings are very diverse and depend on both the national and cultural characteristics of the region and the social status of its owner. Earthen, brick and adobe buildings have been built in dry and woodless areas. Wooden houses were built in forest-rich areas of Europe and Asia. Initially, these houses consisted of one room, and then several rooms were built for different purposes: for example, a bedroom, kitchen, living room, etc.
In the IX millennium BC the first stone houses appeared. Among the oldest settlements in which archaeologists have discovered stone residential buildings are Chaillon in southeastern Anatolia and Jericho in Palestine.
During the Bronze Age, one of the most common types of dwellings in Europe is still dug in the ground, often round in terms of habitation, covered by cone-shaped roofs. Along with them, there are also land houses whose walls were built of stone or woven with clay covering. In the Neolithic and Bronze Age, pile dwellings also extend from Italian terramaras and lake structures in the vicinity of the Alps to pile structures in Oceania and dyak houses in Kalimantan.
The spread of armed conflicts leads to the emergence of fortified settlements (Bereznyaki settlement, Yaroslavl region, Tushemlya settlement, Smolensk region).
Some types of dwellings (e.g. castles) in certain historical periods could only be owned by people with appropriate social status (e.g. nobles). Initially, when agriculture was the dominant activity, houses were usually built in small groups (villages, settlements, villages). Then, with the development of crafts, cities gradually emerged.