Types of training sessions are groups of units of learning processes, separated on certain grounds.
A study session is an integral fragment of the educational process representing a system of interrelated elements: educational situations, forms of organization of interaction of participants, educational task (goal), educational content, methods and means of education. It is limited by the time frame and is carried out within the framework of a certain primary association (collective) of students and teachers: School Class SVG, student group, etc.
The concept of “training session” and the concept of “form of training organization” belong to different groups of concepts.
The concept of the form of organization of learning unilaterally reflects the object – the process of learning, and the concept of learning activity covers this object in many of its intermediaries and relations, that is, is a logically concrete way of an integral unit of the learning process.
However, a learning activity can be seen not only as a unit of the learning process, but also as a specific form of organisation, if one is distracted from a logically specific image of the whole learning process.
Class SVG – Typology of historical and pedagogical origin
The traditional typology of training sessions has a historical and pedagogical basis (training sessions were called as their specific variants appeared).
The traditional typology of educational activities is usually distinguished:
- a lecture,
- a seminar,
- master class
- a tour,
- lab work,
- test work (exam, colloquium, credit…),
- a conference,
- other types of training sessions.
There is no system of common ground on which all these types of training activities are based. The allocation of a particular type of activity is based on private (separate) characteristics: either didactic objectives, or the composition of the learners, or the location, or the duration, or the content of the activities of the teacher and learners, or the learning media.
The lack of unity in the initial basis leads to a variety of nomenclatures of training sessions for different authors, so this typology has limitations in explaining existing and designing new phenomena related to learning.
Empirical typology of educational activities
Classes are divided into three groups based on differences in communication between the teacher and students:
Individual sessions of the teacher with the student, including self-study;
Collective group lessons of the type of classroom lessons (lessons, lectures, seminars, conferences, Olympiads, excursions, business games);
individual-collective classes (dives, creative weeks, scientific weeks, projects)”.
This typology is empirical in nature.
First of all, the word “collective” is used in the tradition originating from Latin “collektivus”, which means “collective”. Its meaning does not follow from the concept of collective as the highest level of development of a social group, based on joint activity and complex forms of cooperation, inclusion of everyone in management.
Second, the second group includes the types of activities based on the common front, and the third group includes all those in which it is destroyed to some extent. However, it is practically impossible to distinguish between specific types of activities in different groups, for example, dives and lessons.
Theoretical typology of educational activities
Theoretical typology uses concepts that capture the essence of the training sessions.
Thus, they are divided into linear and non-linear according to such an essential feature as the structure of the lesson.
If at any point in time at the lesson almost all students are covered by repetition or control, or study of new material, etc., it has a simple, or linear structure.
If, at the same time, different groups of students are engaged in different activities (for example, some write a test paper and others discuss how to construct a model), the activity has a parallel, or complex, or non-linear structure.
On the basis of the system of theoretical concepts, the whole variety of training sessions is divided into three groups:.
- Individual training sessions,
- group training sessions,
- collective training sessions.
Essential features of the training sessions
A common front is a situation where all students of a class do the same thing in a given period of time, in the same way and by the same means.
The study route is a certain sequence of mastering the sections and topics of the curriculum.
Timely cooperation of students – unsteady groups or individual pairs to perform a specific learning task. When the task is completed by all members of the temporary cooperation, it ceases to exist and new alliances are formed.