A vehicle is a motorized road vehicle used to transport people or goods. The main purpose of the vehicle is to perform transport work. Road transport in industrialized countries takes the leading place in comparison with other modes of transport in terms of passenger traffic. A modern car consists of 15-20 thousand parts, 150-300 of which are the most important and the most expensive to operate.
The concept includes a passenger Car SVG, truck, bus, trolley bus, armored personnel carrier, but does not include an agricultural tractor and motorcycle.
A motor vehicle typically used for transporting people or goods by road or for towing vehicles used to transport people or goods by road. The term covers trolleybuses, that is, non-rail vehicles connected to an electrical conduit; it does not cover vehicles such as agricultural tractors, the use of which for the carriage of persons or goods is only an auxiliary function.
Any mechanical self-propelled vehicle normally used for the carriage of persons or goods on roads or for towing on roads of vehicles used for the carriage of persons or goods; this term does not include agricultural tractors.
A ground vehicle driven by its own means on at least four wheels not on the same line, which must always be in contact with the ground, shall be driven by at least two of the wheels, and driven by at least two of the wheels.
The first known drawings of the Car SVG (with spring drive) belong to Leonardo da Vinci (page 812R Codex Atlanticus), but neither a valid copy nor information about its existence has been provided to this day. In 2004, experts from the Museum of the History of Science in Florence were able to restore this car according to the drawings, thus proving the correctness of Leonardo’s idea. During the Renaissance and later in a number of European countries “self-propelled” carts and crews with spring engine were built in single quantities to participate in masquerades and parades.
In 1769, the French inventor Cunho tested the first steam engine car known as the “Cunho Small-Trolley”, and in 1770, the “Cunho Small-Trolley”. The inventor himself called it the “Fire cart” – it was intended for towing artillery guns.
The Cuño trolley is considered to be the predecessor not only of the car, but also of the steam engine, as it was driven by steam. In the XIX century, stagecoaches on steam traction and routers (steam tractors, that is, bezrelsovye steam locomotives) for ordinary roads were built in England, France and used in a number of European countries, including Russia, but they were heavy, voracious and uncomfortable, so they were not widely spread.
In 1791, the Russian inventor Ivan Kulibin made a self-propelled wagon”.
There were separate cases of building cars as luxury goods. Thus, La Marquise (officially named De Dion-Bouton et Trepardoux), built in 1884 and working on steam traction, entered the history.
The appearance of a light, compact and powerful enough internal combustion engine opened up wide opportunities for the development of the car. In 1885, the German inventor Gottlieb Daimler, and in 1886 his compatriot Carl Benz made and patented the first self-propelled crews with gasoline engines. In 1895, Benz made the first bus with ICE. In 1896 Daimler made the first taxi and truck. In the last decade of the XIX century in Germany, France and England, the automotive industry was born.
In the first quarter of the 20th century, electric and steam-powered cars became widespread. In 1900, about half of the cars in the U.S. were in steam mode, in the 1910s in New York City in a taxi operated up to 70 thousand electric cars.
In the same year, in 1900, Ferdinand Porsche designed an electric car with four driving wheels, in which the electric motors driving them were located. Two years later, the Dutch company Spyker produced a racing car with all-wheel drive, equipped with an inter-axle differential.
The first racing Car SVG was equipped with a 35 hp engine and was delivered to Emil Jellinek by DMG on December 22, 1900. This Mercedes was developed by Wilhelm Maybach, chief engineer of DMG, and included innovative design solutions: long wheelbase, wide gauge and low center of gravity, steel frame, cellular radiator and steering wheel. The lightweight, high-performance engine reached 75 km/h and could reach 300 to 1,000 rpm. It had 4 cylinders and a ratio of each cylinder per stroke of 116×140 mm. The volume was 5918 cm³. Each pair of cylinders had its own carburetor, two camshafts and controlled inlet valves, low voltage ignition magneto.
The Stanley brothers produced about 1000 cars a year. In 1909, the brothers opened Colorado’s first luxury hotel and a steam bus from the railway station to the hotel guests, which was the actual beginning of car tourism. The company Stanley produced steam-powered cars until 1927. Despite a number of advantages (good traction, multifuel) steam cars have left the scene in 1930 because of its inefficiency and difficulties in operation.
The American inventor and industrialist Henry Ford, who since 1913 had introduced a conveyor system for car assembly, made a significant contribution to the wide spread of automobile transport.