Business SVG is an activity aimed at systematic profit making.
In Russian, the words entrepreneurship and business are used as synonyms, but sometimes they try to indicate the difference in meaning. In English, the word Business SVG is used for all shades of meaning of the concept of business.
Business SVG is one of the main occupations in a market economy, a source of economic and social development of society. It covers production, commercial, consulting, banking and other spheres of activity.
Small, medium and large businesses are singled out by the number of employees, production volume and operating conditions. The most popular type of business is small business: as a rule, it is a small enterprise that produces homogeneous products and occupies a small share in the market. In some countries, there is a system of state support for such a business, as it organizes itself, arranges daily small needs of people, while ensuring wide employment.
A person who positions himself as a businessman orients his actions towards creating an asset for himself, which, in due course, will not stop bringing him income, regardless of further activity of personal participation in it. He can be either only the owner of the enterprise, or also to work at the enterprise, or to develop partnership with any convenient large enterprise in the field of management, marketing, finance, etc.
Business SVG History
The content of the concepts of “business” and “entrepreneurship” began to be studied at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. Economist A. Marshall (1907-1968) was the first to add a fourth factor – organization – to the above mentioned three classical factors of production (land, capital, labor). Since then, the concept of entrepreneurship has been expanding, as have the functions assigned to it.
An English economist, the winner of the 1974 Nobel Prize in Economics, F.A. Hayek (1899-1984), took a fresh look at this problem. In his opinion, the essence of entrepreneurship is the search and study of new economic opportunities, characterization of behavior, not the type of activity. Later on, it continued in classical theories and the latest concepts, reflecting the specifics of development and functioning of social and economic systems.
Classical School of Political Economy (A. Smith and D. Riccardo). English economists A. Smith (1723-1790) and D. Riccardo (1772-1823) presented economics as a self-regulating mechanism. An entrepreneur, for the sake of realizing a certain commercial benefit and making a profit, goes to risk taking, because investing capital in a particular business always contains an element of risk. Entrepreneurial profits are, in Smith’s opinion, the compensation of the owner for risk. He characterized it as an “economic person”, which corresponds to the characteristics of rational (reasonable) behavior. Another author, D. Riccardo, saw in business the absolute, eternal and natural way of production, and considered entrepreneurial activity as a mandatory element of effective economic management.
Marxism. According to the research of the German scientist K. Marx in the work “Capital”, the basis of profit is the added value, which the entrepreneur assigns in the form of the result of “work” of his capital, rather than buying from the worker. Therefore, business is a controversial phenomenon that can give rise to a variety of conflicts in society, and thus it is an undesirable component of people’s lives in general.
The theory of advance capital. It is an opposition to the previous point of view. According to it, the entrepreneur risks paying wages to workers and buying new raw materials without selling his products.
Institutionalism. The institutional direction of economic thought emerged in the first decades of the 20th century. (T. Weblin, J. Commons, W. Mitchell). They represented three major directions: socio-psychological, socio-legal and institutional-statistical. According to this approach, industry and business represent a dichotomy (the first is a source of change and progress, and the second is a factor that counteracts it).