Ballerina SVG (Italian ballerina – dancer, from Italian ballare – to dance) is a ballet dancer, a classical dancer, trained according to academic ballet canons and using finger technique in dance.
In Russia, in the 20th century, any ballet dancer began to be called a ballerina, whereas in the Russian Empire only the soloist who took the highest position in the ballet troupe was called a Ballerina SVG. This title appeared in the Imperial Theatres in the third quarter of the 19th century together with the appearance on the ballet stage of an entire galaxy of Italian virtuososos, invited from abroad to the position of leading soloists. The artist, who is not a leading soloist, was called a dancer or a dancer and then simply a dancer.
Prima Ballerina SVG
Prima ballerina (from Latin prima – “first”) is a ballerina who holds the first place in the theater, a leading soloist of the troupe, who performs the main roles in the performances. She is a dancer of the highest qualification, possessing a unique originality of interpretation of roles, high technique and artistry. This title also came to Russia from Italy, but most often it is used purely nominally – in the press, interviews, critical analysis, etc. At the same time, the soloists of some Russian theatres (for example, the Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko Musical Theatres) have this title officially.
In English-speaking countries, the word combination of principal dancer is used to denote the highest status of a ballerina, while in France it is the word combination of première danseuse, “first dancer”.
In the ballet troupe of the Paris Opera, which traditionally has its own complex hierarchy, the leading dancer was called the “first plot” (Fr. première sujet) during the 19th century. Artists and performers who were able to climb the highest level of the troupe’s service stairs, from the end of the XIX century began to bear the title of “star” (Fr. étoile). This status, which appeared in 1895 as a “plot-ethicle” (fr. sujet étoile), finally consolidated in the XX century. In 1938, ballerina Solange Schwartz was the first to be officially elevated to the rank of dancer – “Etoali” (Fr. danseuse étoile).
Prima ballerina assoluta
Since 1805, some Italian dancers have been adding the word assoluta “absolute” to their title of Prima Ballerina SVG, thus emphasizing their superiority in the profession and the fact that they have no rivals on stage. In Russia, at the end of the XIX century, this was the name of Pierina Legnani, then, in the early XX century, this title was worn by Anna Pavlova, who became world-famous after leaving Russia and began to tour with her troupe in various countries.
Later, some dancers received this title officially. Thus, in the 1970s, the Berlin Senate decided to award this title to ballerina Eva Evdokimovupupupos after she became a soloist of the West Berlin German opera; In 1979, for her 60th birthday, the title was awarded to Margot Fontaine, a soloist of the Royal Ballet of London, by Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain; and in 1984, the President of South Africa, Peter Botha, awarded the title to the South African ballerina Phyllis Speera.
Currently, this rare title is used only symbolically as a sign of recognition of the outstanding talent of the famous artist and is usually regarded as a tribute, not an official status.