Airplane SVG – an aircraft heavier than air, designed to fly in the atmosphere with the help of a propulsion system, which creates thrust, and a fixed wing relative to other parts of the apparatus, which creates lifting power. The fixed wing distinguishes the aircraft from the flywheel (ornithopter) and helicopter, and the presence of the engine – from the glider. The aircraft differs from the airship and balloon in that it uses aerodynamic rather than aerostatic method of creating lifting power.
Origin of the term
The word “airplane” SVG was used to refer to aircraft back in the 19th century. Thus, in 1857 Captain N.M. Sokovnin, the 1st rank, used this word to designate the controlled balloon. The word “plane” was first used by journalist and writer Arkady Vasilyevich Ewald in the article “Swimming”, which was published in 1863 in the newspaper “Golos”, where he first proposed the idea of such an aircraft in Russia.
The Airplane SVG design
The main elements of the Airplane SVG:
- Wing – creates the necessary lifting force for the flight due to the difference of pressures on the wing lower and upper surfaces in the incoming air flow: the pressure on the lower surface of the wing is greater than the pressure on the upper surface of the wing. On the wing there are aerodynamic controls (ailerons, elevons, etc.), as well as mechanization of the wing – that is, devices used to control the lift and resistance of the aircraft (flaps, interceptors, etc.).
- Fuselage – designed to accommodate the crew, passengers, cargo and equipment, as well as to fix the wing, plumage, landing gear, engines, etc. (as if it were the “body” of the aircraft). Planes without fuselage are known (e.g. “flying wing”).
- Feet – aerodynamic surfaces designed to ensure stability, controllability and balancing of the aircraft. To control the aircraft on the plumage have deflected surfaces – aerodynamic rudders (rudder height, rudder direction), or make the plumage surface entirely rotatable (on many supersonic aircraft).
- Gearbox – a system of supports necessary for the aircraft to run at takeoff, run at landing, as well as movement and parking on the ground. The greatest distribution has the wheeled landing gear. Also known chassis designs with skis, floats, skids and skids. In the USSR, experiments with caterpillar chassis and air cushioned chassis were carried out. Many modern aircrafts, in particular the majority of military aircrafts, as well as passenger aircrafts, have retractable landing gear.
- The power plant of the aircraft, consisting of the engine and propulsor (e.g., an air screw), as well as the systems that ensure their operation, creates the necessary thrust, which, by balancing the aerodynamic resistance, provides the aircraft with a progressive motion.
- Airborne equipment systems – various equipment that allows to perform flights under any conditions. Approximately the last 30-40 years onboard electronics is the most intelligent, sophisticated and expensive equipment, superior in cost to the rest of the aircraft design.
Airplane SVG History
At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, the English naturalist George Kaylie proposed the concept of a fixed wing aircraft with a separate engine. In 1843, English inventor William Henson received a patent for the design of the aircraft. The first Russian design of the plane was proposed by Nikolai Afanasievich Teleshov in 1864. In 1874, French naval officer Jean-Marie Felix de la Croix du Tample built a full-size aircraft with a steam engine. However, insufficient engine power did not allow it to fly. In 1882, in the presence of representatives of the military department of the Russian Empire and the Russian Technical Society, an attempt was made to take off on the plane with a steam power plant, built by the Russian naval officer Alexander Fyodorovich Mozhaysky. According to a number of studies conducted in the XX century in the USSR, the available engine power also did not allow the Mozhaisky aircraft to perform the established flight, but according to some reports of contemporaries, there was a brief separation of the apparatus from the ground. Aircraft with steam engines by Clement Ader (France) and Hiram (Giram) Maxim (USA) also briefly detached from the ground, but could not make a stable controlled flight. The reasons for this were: lack of flight theory and control, theory of strength and aerodynamic calculations. In this regard, the planes were built “at random”, “by eye”, despite the engineering experience of many aviation pioneers.
In the modern academic literature concerning Airplane SVG building, the most widespread opinion is that the first aircraft that was able to make its own stable controlled horizontal flight was Flyer-1, built by brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright in the USA. The first flight in the history of the aircraft was carried out on December 17, 1903. “Flyer 1 lasted 12 seconds and flew 36.58 meters (120 feet). On the improved models, the Wright brothers on September 20, 1904 for the first time in the world made a circular flight, and in 1905 – a flight on a closed route 39 km long.
Their device was a biplane of “duck” type – the pilot was placed on the lower wing, the steering wheel at the back, the steering wheel at the front. Double-legged wings were covered with thin unwhite muslin. Flyer’s engine was four-stroke, with a starting power of 16 horsepower and weighed only (or as much as 80 kg, if you look at it from a modern point of view).
The device had two wooden screws. Instead of the Wright’s wheeled chassis, a starting catapult consisting of a pyramidal tower and a wooden guide rail was used. The catapult was driven by a falling massive cargo connected to the plane by a rope through a system of special blocks.